About the Pale Moon user interface layout

Several people have asked why Pale Moon has not followed the Firefox GUI (Graphical User Interface) layout. This document aims to provide a bit of background to the choices made in Pale Moon and to explain the reasoning behind the differences with Firefox.
These layout changes were not done lightly, or without thought. The fact that the end result looks more conservative is not necessarily because Pale Moon is adverse to change, far from it. Rather, the layout is the result of working with the existing elements and attempting to keep things logical, efficient and intuitive. It is also because the design choices in Firefox were considered regression rather than progression, and there being very little that is truly "innovative" about the layout (as that implies good reason for, and a clear and unmistakable advantage of, the new state of things).

With the advent of Australis, an even clearer choice was made to not follow the Mozilla Corporation's direction in their attempts to create a "one size fits all" user interface from mobile phone to HD desktop. There is no such thing, and to attempt it is folly, in my opinion. For Pale Moon, there is also no reason to attempt "brand unity over operating system unity" (meaning an attempt to make the browser look the same regardless of operating system it is used on), and Pale Moon rather aims for "operating system unity over brand unity" (meaning an as high level of visual operating system integration as possible to provide a familiar, well-intergrated user interface).

Some definitions

First off, some definitions for common terms/abbreviations:
  • (G)UI: (Graphical) User Interface - This is what constitutes everything in the browser that is not page content, meaning all buttons, controls, menus, toolbars, the status bar, etc.
  • UX: User eXperience - the name says it all, really.
  • Standard UI convention: Something that has, either over time or by peer agreement, been settled on as being "the standard way of doing something in a user interface" and that is shared among a large number of applications.
  • Affordance: Visually, the UI has clues that indicate what it is going to do. Users don’t have to experiment or deduce the interaction. The affordance of a UI is based on real-world (past) experiences or standard UI conventions.
  • Expectation: Functionally, the UI delivers the expected, predictable results, without surprises. Users don’t have to experiment or deduce the result of doing something. The expectations are based on labels, real-world (past) experiences, or standard UI conventions.
  • Efficiency: The UI enables users to perform an action with a minimum amount of effort. If the intention is clear, the UI delivers the expected results the first time, so that users don’t have to repeat the action (perhaps with variations) to get what they want.
  • Responsiveness: The UI gives clear, immediate feedback to indicate that the action is happening, and was either successful or unsuccessful. Not to be confused with "reacting quickly" per se, although the two can be considered close to each other.

Element grouping

The basic premise behind Pale Moon's choices is simple: Element grouping.

Grouping elements together with similar function or similar feedback is very important to UI design; people have designated zones in the UI where they can find groups of similar elements. This improves affordance and efficiency of the UI, as the location of an element is a clue to its function, and the intention is therefore clear.
This scattering about of controls has been a problem for layout for several different popular browsers, including later versions of Microsoft's Internet Explorer.

Grouping elements together with the objects they control is another consideration that will increase the affordance, as the location is a clear indication to what it will affect, making the result expected when the element is used.
This will also improve ergonomics of browser use: The number 1 GUI operation performed by users of a browser is switching tabs when they use tabbed browsing. Grouping the tabs with the content they control reduces the distance needed for the pointer to travel (from content to tab) and therefore improves ergonomy.

The status bar

One of the most important changes in Pale Moon has been to retain the status bar in the browser, after the (already optional) element was completely removed in the development stages of Firefox 4, and complete removal of that area of the browser for add-ons (the add-on bar) in Australis.
A status bar is both a standard element (standard UI convention) for applications that have status to report (and a web browser is certainly one of those applications) and considered essential by a vast majority of users as shown in a survey. Removing the status bar, and even removing the option to have it if one wants it, has been a very ill-conceived notion by the Mozilla UX team for Firefox. By including the status bar, a small, peripheral-view element provides users with several different types of feedback about the status of the browser. In all respects, including the status bar is beneficial to the user interface's level of intuitiveness: it provides affordance by showing status text, in an expected location, and improves responsiveness of the UI by providing immediate feedback.

Firefox's alternative for status text (the popup method) to display network status and link addresses gives a comparable amount of feedback, but in a much more intrusive way: by not having it in a static element, the popup demands attention from the user, which is not a good thing for the kind of information provided. After all: this kind of information is secondary to the actual page content, and shouldn't draw someone's attention. In addition, popping in and out rapidly while browsing, the information can be very distracting or annoying. An intuitive interface should not lead to frustration. Plus, the popup status can't be configured or disabled, so in fact this has been two steps back, not just one.

The status bar also provides more information than what has been retained in the UI elsewhere. There is no page load progress which is especially important for people on slower connections, the status can no longer be set by web pages which is important feedback for some web applications, etc.

Navigation controls

By default, Firefox spreads different navigation controls out horizontally over the browser. From a UI design perspective, this is a very poor choice. Internet Explorer has suffered from the same poor decision, and you can wonder if copycatting has been going on without much thinking of the impact. Element grouping is important for these controls, as is having the elements be a similar shape (not mixing bordered with borderless) and size, resulting in the more classic look of the back/forward/reload-stop/home controls being grouped together to the left of the address bar, and of about equal size, being the default layout. All these elements control browser navigation.

In Australis, the way these controls are laid out is also no longer configurable (as it was before) and everyone is forced into the navigation toolbar layout as supplied "out of the box" by Firefox: Controls spread out, with some in the URL bar and much smaller, and no way to move the back/forward/reload/stop buttons to  positions suited to people's individual browsing styles.

Tabs on top

This has been a hot topic, and one could even call it "trendy" - but is it logical from a UI design perspective?

In some conditions, it is: when a browser is maximized or used in full screen, having the tabs at or close to the edge of the browser means they are at the edge of the screen. In this case, it becomes easier to use, since the screen edge is a "hard" border and you don't have to be as accurate to quickly select a different tab with a traditional pointing device - this follows Fitts' law concepts.

In all other cases, it is not -- including touch devices where screen edge considerations don't apply and may even cause problems and annoyance if it's a "hot edge" for the operating system. Considering that today's computers have high resolution screens - in this age, full HD being pretty much standard with any desktop (and even laptop) system - most people use their operating system with multiple applications in regular windows, and not maximized. In this scenario, having tabs on top means that, once again, element grouping (this time of larger zones of the browser) is not followed. Consider the following different layouts:
Layout with Tabs on TopLayour with Tabs next to Content
The left layout has tabs not grouped with the element they control, but has static UI elements that are browser-wide inbetween. The right layout has tabs grouped with the content. The tabs don't control the way the navigation controls of the browser or the URL bar look or behave, nor do they influence other toolbars that may be there; they only control the page content. Both tabs and content are dynamic. One could argue that the URL address is an exception to this, of course, but in that case you would expect the URL field to be a separate control in its own zone - which it is not for the sake of using space efficiently.
If you consider system elements of the window placed around these layouts, like the application menu (which is a standard UI convention to have), title bar and borders, potential side bar, additional browser controls at the left and/or right end of the tab bar, etc., then it becomes even clearer that, in the right hand layout, the hierarchy of the elements is preserved: the outside being standard system elements (OS-static), wrapping around the browser elements specific to the program (application-static), which in turn wrap around content and content controls, which are dynamic.

Even just looking at visual representation, this hierarchy should be preserved from a visual design point of view:
When tabs would be on top, which would be very important visual elements if you often switch tabs (and that is what you do if you use tabbed browsing), the eye has to cross data which is not immediatley relevant, and the elements the view has to cross has a distracting effect. Tabs on top puts the second most useful element of the display in a very low priority, visually peripheral place - an eye movement from page content to the tabs is distracted by the text shown in misc toolbars like the bookmarks toolbar, the address bar, the search box and navigation icons.

This is why the default in Pale Moon is to have tabs not on top, as it's more logical to have them next to the content. Australis completely removes the option to have the user interface laid out in this way, and forces everyone to use tabs on top, regardless of use case.

All is not lost: Configurability

Providing users with full configurability of the UI layout (as opposed to the ever decreasing amount of configurability in Firefox), all of these design choices are defaults - and can be changed. In some cases it takes only 1 click (like tabs on top, or making the status bar hidden), in other cases it takes a few more steps, but even those are easy to follow.
So, if you don't like the way Pale Moon is laid out by default, then play with the options and configure it the way you want it. To get started, right-click an empty space in the tab bar or a standard control (like the home button) and select "Customize...", or alternatively click the Pale Moon button, Options, "Toolbar layout..."

Your browser, Your way!

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